9 Alan Turing : Alan Turing was British scientist, who changed the world by inventing the world’s first computer, and giving the allied forces a massive advantage during the war. Turing is considered the father of theoretical computer science, and artificial intelligence. Turing invented a machine that could crack a German code, which was supposed to be impossible to track. Many battles were won specifically because of his machine, and it’s estimated that he shortened the war by about two to four years, he is clearly one of the greatest scientists to ever live. Even after all his achievements Turing was arrested in 1952 for homosexual act, as being gay was a crime at the time. He was required to be treated with chemical castration. Two years later he died of suspected suicide.